H I S T O R Y
The indigenous city of Quilmes
Possibly Quilmes is the most important town built by aborigine partialities in the Argentine North West. It is situated on the Eastern slope of the Alto del Rey mountain, in the Santa María mountains, secondary range of the Cajon or Quilmes Mountain.
Defined as a village-urban centre, can be interpreted as one of the best examples of "santamariana" urbanization. There can be seen civil, army buildings and production zones. The craggy mountain was udes to settle, following the lines of its topography, the buildings distributing them in terraces. The zones domineering by their height are dedicated to war preparations and fortress whilst the town goes down gradually to flat land.
This great urbanistic complex was the seat of one of the most outstanding partialities of the "diaguita-calchaqui" altogether: the one of the "quilmes-acalianes" indians. According to archeological data, the place started to become peopled towards the year 1000 a.D. It was an agricultural society with an incipient cattle raising also. The agricultural activity was so important that it demanded the building of a dam, of elaborate technology for that time, for the irrigation of that quick drainge sandy soil.
During more than five centuries of occupation, the cultural development reached high levels. A startified society which had privileged castes like the ones of the priests, warriors, artisans, etc., developed in the settling, achieving the production of objects in metallurgy, ceramics and the different handicraft manifestations which contributed to the high level agriculture achieved.
The arrival of the Incas towards the middle of the XV century brought novelties, being outstanding the architectonic parametres which mark the building of the site.
The amount of the population settled in the place at the beginning of the second half of the XVII century, is estimated in about 2,000 families, that is 10,000 persons, approximately. On the XVII century "calchaquies"wars,the people that bravely defended their habitat were defeated and obliged to the "banishment", that is into exile. Crossing the mountains and going down to the plain, after many ups and downs registered by history, towards 1666 they were assigned to a village created by the Spanish missionaries referred to as a "reducción"in a Magdalena zone, province of Buenos Aires. There were installed about 270 Quilmes Indians families which had been subdued by don Alonso Mercado y Villacorta. The "reducción"was maintained, slowly deteriorating during the XVIII century; finally towards 1812 the entrance of other families is allowed and the structure of the town is drawn, which today bears the name of these trained Americans: Quilmes.
Founded (1565) by Diego de Villarroel, a Spanish conqueror, Tucuman was relocated to its present site in 1668 after frequent Indian raids. In 1810, the news of the May Revolution arrived. The people of Tucuman adhered to the movement which was taking place in Buenos Aires and other important cities. The purpose of this movement was to expell the spaniards from Argentina. In 1816, assembled in Tucuman, the Congress of the United Provinces declared Independence and first constitution was written at this Congress.
In 1821, in his farm in the outskirts of the city, Bishop Jose Eusebio Colombres sawed cane, harvested it and manufactured sugar, creating the main industry of the province. This fact spurred Tucuman's economic growth.